PMID: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 5 ;14(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5. PMID: 28587233 Abstract Title: Sex Differences in the Association of Urinary Concentrations of Phthalates Metabolites with Self-Reported Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases in Shanghai Adults. Abstract: Phthalate exposure was reported to be related to diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, reported associations and the sex differences are inconsistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study between 2330 participants in the Fall of 2012. Urinary metabolites of 10 phthalates were measured. The status of getting DM and results were self-reported. In the total study population, the logistic regression analyses showed that the urinary levels of mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyphthalate (MEOHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexylphthalate(MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentylphthalate (MECPP) were positively related to DM. Higher urinary levels of monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-2-carboxymethyl-hexyl phthalate (MCMHP) were correlated with increased odds of hyperlipidemia, while mono-2-ethylhexylphthalate (MEHP) was considerably inverse-associated with hyperlipidemia. We didn’t observe substantial institutions for other CVD-related results. When stratifying by sex, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, MCMHP and the micromolar sums of the oxidative metabolites of DEHP (ΣDEHPox) were all significantly associated with DM in men, but not in females. No sex differences were found in outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the sex-specific relationship between DM and phthalates exposure.